The Science Behind Our Surface Protectants

Our active ingredient is a proprietary blend of Chitosan and CLO2. Chitosan has been studied and reviewed by numerous Departments and Agencies in the USA, as well as a growing list of equivalent agencies in other nations. CLO2 is a recognized safe disinfectant used for the purification of drinking water.

Below, you will find an assortment of quotations and links to documents detailing the approvals, studies, and scholarly articles detailing the Relative Safety & Efficacy of this wonder of nature.

Review our own independent and accredited test data on the antimicrobial efficacy of chitosan. Click Here.


USDA Technical Evaluation Report, February 2004

Approved for use on crops, both as an Adjuvant [in 2008] (additive to other active products) and…as Natural Plant Disease Control Agent [in 2019]. [For more information, see this document from the USDA]. 

EPA supporting assessment of Chitosan efficacy against plant pathogens: plant defense booster, plant growth enhancer. [read more]


Approved by the FDA for use in the preservation of minimally preserved strawberries. [read more]

Approved by the FDA for use a sealant and protective super-absorbent dressing used in the treatment of wound care.  

An Overview of FDA Considerations and Approved Applications of Chitosan in Biomedicine [read more]

Approved by the FDA for use in controlling Salmonella in broilers by adding it to feed. 

Approved by the FDA for use in the manufacturing, preservation, and delivery of food and drugs. [read more]


Designated as GRAS [Generally Recognized as Safe] and used regularly as a clarifier and antimicrobial aid in the manufacturing of wine. 

Approved the the National Organic Standards Board for addition to the National List of Approved products.

Recommendation and Approved For Direct Contact Use for the Preservation of Fruits & Vegetables [Article 1] [Article 2] [Article 3]

Approved by the FDA for use in the preservation of minimally preserved strawberries. [read more]


Proposed by the EPA for inclusion as an Active Ingredient in the Minimal Risk Pesticide Exemptions List. 

Currently under consideration for antiviral applications as a tool to combat COVID-19. 

EPA Promotes Inclusion and Innovation with Environmental Applications of Chitosan. 

Significant Quotes: 

  • “By adding this naturally-occurring substance to this list, the agency can save taxpayers and stakeholders time and money through waived Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) registration requirements for certain products containing Chitosan.”
  • “Chitosan is a naturally occurring substance found in the cell walls of all crustaceans, most fungi, and the exoskeletons of most insects. It is currently registered with EPA as a fungicide, antimicrobial agent, and plant growth regulator that boosts the ability of plants to defend against fungal infections.”
  • “After reviewing the latest available science, consulting with the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) Scientific Advisory Panel , and ensuring that all criteria are met, EPA is now proposing to add Chitosan to its list of active ingredients eligible for EPA’s minimum risk pesticide exemption. EPA estimates the cost savings of this action could be up to $116,000 initially and about $3,400 per year thereafter.”
  • “[The] EPA created the exemption for minimum risk pesticides in 1996 to reduce the cost and regulatory burdens on businesses and the public for pesticides posing little or no risk to human health and the environment.”

Applications of Chitosan for Protection of Fruits & Vegetables against S. Aureus. [read more]

A Review of the Antimicrobial Activity of Chitosan [read more]

Antimicrobial Actions and Applications of Chitosan [read more]

Applications of Chitosan in food, pharmaceuticals, medicine, cosmetics, agriculture, textiles, pulp and paper, biotechnology, and environmental chemistry [read more]

Underlying Mechanism of Antimicrobial Activity of Chitosan Microparticles and Implications for the Treatment of Infectious Diseases

 [read more]

Antibacterial Activity of a Chitosan-based System [read more]

Chitosan Derivatives and their Application in Biomedicine [read more]

Review our own independent and accredited test data on the antimicrobial efficacy of chitosan.

Review this independent and accredited test data on the effectiveness of chlorine dioxide for cleaning / allergens.

What Is Chlorine Dioxide?

Most people have never heard of Chlorine Dioxide (CLO2). Or else they think its bleach (which is Sodium Hypochlorite or NsCIO). Like bleach, CLO2 is used as a sanitizer and bleaching agent. Unlike bleach, CLO2 is safe to use, does not leave toxic residue. Chlorine Dioxide oxygenates products rather than chlorinating them.

CLO2 is considered a “friendly” Deodorizer, Sanitizer and Disinfectant.

There are a lot of pathogenic organisms out there that can cause chaos. CLO2 is highly effective on most bacteria, virus, fungi, mold spores, algae, and blood borne pathogens, protozoa, yeast and biofilms. Some names you might recognize are:

Legionella – Salmonella – Cryptosporidium – Giardia Cysts – Coliforms – Listeria – Shigella – Staph – Norovirus – Influenza – Anthrax – Cholera – E-coli – Hepatitis – Hepa Virus – EBOLA – C Diff – MARS – MERSA

Where Microbes Lurk

There are lots of places we tend to forget when sanitizing our homes and work places. A towel sprayed with CLO2 and used to wipe surfaces is an excellent way to reduce colds and flu. Just some of the “forgotten” places are;

Door Knobs, Phone receivers, Cell phones, Computer key boards, Computer mouse, Lotion bottle, Stapler, Purse & Briefcase handles, Toilet flusher Sink fixtures, Washer & drier knobs, Light switch plates, Printers & copiers, Fax machines, just to name a few.

Problems with Mold/Mildew

Bathrooms are notorious for mold, especially on the grout. They tell you not to use harsh chemicals on the tile because the chemicals may deteriorate the grout. CLO2 is non-corrosive, so it cannot hurt the grout. Yet, it packs a powerful punch when it comes to attacking mold/mildew and algae.

Not all molds are visible, so it is wise to rinse down the entire tile, floor, tub & the toilet. CLO2 also kills spores, bleach does NOT. Alcohol, a standard disinfectant, can cause bacteria to go to the spore stage which can make the organism survive for years.

What Is The Difference Between Chlorine Dioxide & Chlorine Bleach?

Unfortunately, the word “chlorine” is found in both Chlorine Dioxide (CLO2) and Chlorine Bleach (NaCLO). This has led to a lot of confusion.

Chlorine Dioxide:

  • Does NOT release free chlorine
  • Does NOT release harmful byproducts
  • Highly effective on bacteria, virus, protozoa, algae, fungus
  • Long term residual disinfection effectiveness
  • Non-corrosive, does not react with ammonia
  • Microbes do not build resistance
  • Broad spectrum antimicrobial
  • Kills spores
  • Effective at a wide range of ph.

Chlorine dioxide is not another form of chlorine. We can draw an analogue to hydrogen and hydrogen cyanide, they are both gases, have the same first name, but completely different properties. So too with chlorine dioxide and chlorine, indeed one molecule does make a big difference.

Chlorine Dioxide is defined in the USA as having “no elemental free chlorine .. hence it does not chlorinate. It is because of this fact and the amazing chemistry of chlorine dioxide that it is slowly becoming an important tool in disinfection and oxidation in the world to-day.

Chlorine dioxide is a molecule consisting if 1 chlorine atom and 2 oxygen atoms. Abbreviated to CL02.

  • It has a molecular weight of 67.45.
  • It is a gas at normal temperatures and pressures.
  • It has a melting point of -S9°C.
  • It has a boiling point of 11 °C
  • It is yellowish/ green and has an odor similar to that of chlorine.
  • It is denser than air and is water soluble at standard temperatures and pressures up to 2500 ppm.
  • It is explosive in air at concentrations > 10%
  • It is prohibited from all form of transport, it is normally generated at the point of application.
  • It will decompose in the presence of UV, high temperatures, and high alkalinity(> ph 12).

The physical and chemical properties of chlorine dioxide outline below will unravel its amazing capabilities.

  • Chlorine dioxide does not dissociate in water. It stays as chlorine dioxide therefore its ability to operate as a disinfectant/sanitizer is independent of pH.
  • Chlorine dioxide is an oxidant with a low redox potential. It has a redox potential of +o.96 mV compared to chlorine of +1.36 mV. There is no relationship between redox and disinfecting efficacy.
  • Chlorine dioxide has a few specific chemical reactions. From this property a number of very interesting properties are derived:
    • It has a very low toxicity rating, indeed some formulations have GRAS status.
    • It is generally regarded as a ” no – irritant”. o It is not corrosive as a pure chlorine dioxide solution.
    • Its reactions are selective hence as an oxidant reagent consumption is maximized in the redox reaction not through side reactions.

In conclusion, therefore we have a disinfectant / sanitizer which Is an oxidant with few chemical reactions, no pH limitations, very low toxicity, worldwide approval for drinking water, very high efficacy against micro-organisms, has a strong and measurable residual. The product when applied at use concentration in water will not corrode equipment; will not produce an environment harmful to workers or consumers.